Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Linux Security Using Iptables

Question: Talk about the Linux Security Using Iptables. Answer: Presentation All the IT frameworks associated in the web are consistently under different dangers. Linux servers are utilized for a large portion of the online application facilitating purposes. Henceforth Linux electronic servers are under genuine security danger consistently. Equipment firewalls are utilized to forestall security penetrates in the system. Equipment firewalls got their own hindrances. The can't illuminate all the firewall goals. IPTables is the product firewall utilized in a large portion of the Linux working frameworks (Baki Billah Rahman, 2013). A short report about the IPTables will be finished. Different designs will be done in IPTables and the arrangements are tried. Primary uses and constraints will be talked about later. Significance of IPTables Firewall The IPTables keeps some arrangement rules dependent on some arrangement of strategies. At the point when information demand comes the guidelines will be checked and correspondence way will be controlled dependent on the principles. IPTable will check the source and goal IP addresses, mentioned administration convention, term and numerous different things. Every one of these subtleties will be checked for any reasonable match in the principles. In the event that the match is there, at that point the activity characterized in the IPTables will be finished. In any case default decides will apply to that information move correspondence (Bauer, 2005). Establishment of IP Tables Kali Linux is introduced in a virtual server. Introduced I P tables utilizing the accompanying order. The current principles of the IP tables will be rattled off utilizing the accompanying order. The structure of the chain arrangements are as per the following. Posting current standards To check the current standards of the IPTables rules utilize the accompanying order. Default INPUT, OUTPUT, Forward standards will be appears as follows (7.4. FORWARD and NAT Rules, 2016). To dispose of the current guidelines (Not default rules) and to restart the firewall Arrangement of IPT IPTable Firewall Dismissing all ssh bundles. This standard is to square SSH bundles from any IP or IP ranges (How To List and Delete Iptables Firewall Rules | DigitalOcean, 2016). Iptables - l INPUT s p tcp dport ssh j REJECT Tried SSH access from to the server and got association denied result (HowTos/Network/IPTables - CentOS Wiki, 2016) On the off chance that we check the logs of the IPTables Permitting ssh remote associations Disposed of the current IPTable guidelines. The accompanying standard permits the SSH associations from outside (iptables - Debian Wiki, 2016). For active ports, the accompanying guideline permits SSH association (iptables - Debian Wiki, 2016) Square ping To hinder the PING reactions (XenServer et al., 2016) # reverberation 1/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all To square ping forever the accompanying order needs to go to/and so on/sysctl.conf net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all = 1 To set these progressions without rebooting the framework # sysctl p Reject all traffic coming to port 80 This is basically utilized in web servers where the administration port for web administrations is 80. To dismiss web administration demand at port 80. Square approaching traffic association with your IP address of your virtual machine. The accompanying guideline will obstruct all the approaching associations with IP Address of Iptables - An INPUT - I eth0 - s - j DROP Square all the approaching associate particles from a particular MAC address Square all the approaching associate particles from a particular MAC address and a port Permit traffic coming to port 80 (inbound) however dismiss traffic going out (outbound) through port 80. Testing IPTables To begin the genuine testing process, right off the bat introduced all the iptables in the working framework Kali Linux. At that point, checked the standards present in the firewall, subsequent to finishing the checks guaranteed to spare and reestablish the current principles as a book document. When this procedure is finished, all the necessary tests can be begun. The point to be recollected is that, before carryout any test the past test rules must be erased (Iptables Essentials: Common Firewall Rules and Commands | DigitalOcean, 2016) (IptablesHowTo - Community Help Wiki, 2016). The principal test is completed for dismissing all the SSH parcels. So as to finish this test ifconfig language is utilized. This will be useful to make association with the interior system. So once the association is set up, on the goal port 22 the tcp parcels must be dismissed. Further, ensured that the line number and the guidelines coordinate with one another. To check whether the test is finished effectively, utilize another framework with an alternate IP address and check whether the association works or not. On the off chance that, in the event that the association is dismissed by the host, at that point it implies that the test is effectively finished and it has dismissed all the SSH bundles. As referenced before, guarantee to erase the recently utilized standards. This test is completed to set up ssh association. The absolute initial step of this test will be to acknowledge the tcp parcels from the goal port 22. At that point utilize another framework with an alternate IP address and check whether the association works or not. In the event that, on the off chance that the association is acknowledged by the host, at that point it implies that the test is effectively finished and it has acknowledged the SSH association if not the association has fizzled. From the past test, erase all the recently utilized guidelines. This test is completed to check whether an association is set up and ready to ping the other framework with various IP address. The initial step of this test will be to dismiss the icmp parcels for denying the ping. In the wake of dismissing the icmp bundles check whether it is conceivable to ping the other IP address framework or not. Erase all the recently utilized principles from the past test. This test is done to check the dismissal of traffic from the port 80. The initial step of this test will dismiss the traffic that originates from the port 80. At that point the following is to check whether the site server is introduced. On the off chance that the site server is introduced, at that point the website page will be associated from another framework with an alternate IP address and if not the port 80 is dismissing all the traffic originating from it. Erase all the recently utilized guidelines from the past test. This test is done to check whether all the traffic is blocked or not. The initial step of this test will be to drop all the inward access from the host. At that point utilize another framework with an alternate IP address for pinging the host machine. In this way, it shows whether the traffic association is blocked or not. Erase all the recently utilized principles from the past test. This test is done to check whether the port 80 has become a single direction traffic port. The initial step of this test will be to dismiss all the traffic that goes out and roll in from the port 80. Following stage is to utilize another framework with an alternate IP address and the host machine for testing whether it is conceivable to associate with the web server or not. In the event that, if the host machine neglects to get the association and if the other framework with an alternate IP address has effectively settled association then it implies that the port 80 has become a single direction traffic port. More Details about IPTable Firewalls, Merits and Demerits It got parcel of points of interest. The ipchains configuration is dropped totally and another design is actualized called as Netfilier. It gives an unmistakable secluded plan. It makes a solid extension. It accomplishes a NAT.ipchains that is dynamic in nature. These NAT.ipchains are fundamentally addresses that are veiled as different sets. It helps in accomplishing client sifting. It helps in accomplishing MAC. It helps in accomplishing a genuine separating process that relies upon the state. It helps in accomplishing the traveling rate breaking point of a bundle. It helps the iptables of Linux with free firewall apparatuses. Furthermore, it gives open source that is liberated from cost. In the event that, on the off chance that the setting of the product firewall is fixed, at that point it works adequately. The IP layer and the TCP layers are utilized for channel. It is adaptable. Association following is a significant component. Different ports can be controlled in both approach ing just as active associations. One lot of IP range can be permitted or dismissed. Application and port level permit/dismiss likewise conceivable (Jang, 2009). IPchains got - l banner to log the action. IPTables don't have it. IP disguising which is bolstered by ipchains isn't upheld by iptables (Man page of IPTABLES, 2016). For high pocket rates low execution is watched. It is hard to keep up and got less execution. IPTables got just two sort of exercises. Match and log is the first. Match and drop is the subsequent one. The firewalls that are equipment based are costly. It is hard for the client with less spending plans to buy the equipment based firewall (Negus Caen, 2008).It is hard to understand security issues. The principles are set by the iptables for controlling the information parcels get to. It influences the system traffic. The table of rules may be huge and entangled. On the off chance that the multifaceted nature builds, at that point it gets hard for testing. It will contain numerous escape clauses because of complexities and complex standards. It relies upon a solitary part for ensuring the framework. The bundle sifting can simply help in avoidance of the IP trickiness. One can utilize the port module for setting the rundown of ports. One can utilize arrange information stream for choosing the standards for the different system interfaces. One can guarantee to keep away from the misdirection rule of the source address. One can stop the high progression of the information in explicit ports Circuit Relay Firewall It won't offer start to finish association yet it transfers the TCP associations between inner circuit and outside circuit. When associating with outside system there will be an intermediary before firewall. Intermediary changes the IP locations of the inside circuits to the outside world. Outer world can see just the IPs of the intermediary. Accordingly the inside IPs are spared. The circuit level firewall bolsters applications. It goes about as an entryway with the assistance

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Ancient Greece :: Ancient Greece Essays fc

Antiquated Greece      Ancient Greece is a landmass situated off the Mediterranean Sea, and is encircled by a few islands.      Ancient Greece was comprised of various sorts of government. There were two sorts of city expresses a theocracy , which is administered by a little gathering of residents and an immediate majority rules system managed by the individuals . All residents could make addresses and vote at the Assembly. The Council made up of 500 residents made new laws which were bantered in the Assembly . No one but residents could cast a ballot ,ladies , outsiders, slaves didn't reserve the option to cast a ballot Religion and legends were significant in Greek residents lives . They utilized Divine beings and Goddess to clarify things which occurred in science and regular daily existence . They assembled sanctuaries to respect their Gods and Goddess and held the Olympics in respect of the ruler of the divine beings Zeus . The Parthenon was a sanctuary worked to respect the Goddess Athena . The individuals accepted the Gods and Goddess would support you in the event that you gave them contributions, for example, gold ,silver ,and the product of the collect .A not many of the Gods and Goddess were Zeus lord of the divine beings ,Athena Goddess of insight, fighting, and the city , Apollo , divine force of the sun , light ,truth , music and , prescience , Hades sibling of Zeus and ruler of the under world and existence in the wake of death , and Poseidon, leader of the oceans . The entirety of the divine beings and goddess inhabited Mount Olympus the most noteworthy mountain in Greece . The Greeks had numerous occupations , brokers , traders , planners , thinkers, writers , artists , specialists , artists , space experts and , physicists anyway ; every resident secured the city state . Each resident had a obligation to protect the state as a hoplite, which is a vigorously prepared warrior .They worked in a huge rectangular arrangement of thousands of men all equivalent in rank .      The Greeks impacted the manner in which we live today .The informed Greeks needed clarifications for the world and things around them . they mentioned objective facts and thought of speculations . These individuals were known as scholars which implies â€Å"the love of astuteness † Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle were renowned savants .      Hippocrates is known as the dad of prescriptions today specialists take the Hippocratic Oath , †named after him , which expects them to act morally and ethically . Anaxagras , a cosmologist clarified that a sun oriented obscuration is caused by the moon going between the earth and the sun shutting out the suns light .

Saturday, August 15, 2020

The Impossible Design Project

The Impossible Design Project Ok. Well, Ive been kind of busy these days. Taking 5 classes (2 CIs and 2 labs will do that). SoI thought Id take the easy way out, by giving you one of my problems to take a look at. 6.033 is Computer Systems Engineering. It has lots of different components to it so far weve talked about the Therac-25, the X Windows System, multi-threading, and a couple of other things. It moves quickly through different topics, all of which are very interesting. In particular, though, 6.033 has two design projects, where were presented with a fairly real world problem, and we have to try to solve it. This year, we have to create a controller for a NAND flash device. The controller sits between the filesystem and the physical device itself, and has to make the flash look like a traditional magnetic disk, in spite of the fact that flash memory is distinctly unlike a magnetic disk. Heres the description of the problem: Feel free to submit solutions in the comments. My one recommendation is that you should make sure that you actually have enough RAM to store what you want. My friends and I spent multiple days coming up with and throwing out lots of different options, and none of us have a solution that were truly satisfied with, so dont feel bad if you have a hard time coming up with something that works. You can not solve this problem without making significant sacrifices in either the available storage space, the read and write performance, or the ability of the controller to balance wear over time. Ill post my solution after I give you guys time to play with it. Also feel free to let me know if you have any questions I know its kind of hard to follow at first. (And as usual, questions about other MIT-related things are also OK)

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Social Identity Theory Is The Potent Tool By Which A...

Abstract Language is the potent tool by which a community constructs and defines its sociopolitical agenda; it is the lens through which a people’s history and culture is viewed; a devise that is used both as a controlling as well as a rewarding tool. Largely, it aligns the beliefs of its subjects even as it defines their worldview. While many studies have been done to understand obsequiousness, Unfortunately, the political elite in Africa and particularly Kenya have resorted to various dubious applications of language not only to defraud, loot, plunder and further their selfish agenda but also to mystify politics as well as stoke ethnical differences to brew animosity (the politics of them against us) among the citizenry. They have cannily created a volatile environment where communities and neighbors who have coexisted for centuries in peaceful neigbourliness by planting thorny seeds of distrust thereby killing the spirit of Ubuntu (human kindness) and Ujamaa/undugu (‘familyhood’); the Rwanda genocide notwithstanding. This paper will seek to employ social identity theory to try and understand why the current generation of political leaders has largely succeeded in using political violence which goes against some of the age old African philosophical and Sociopsychological rubrics. The conclusion will reflect on various avenues by which political communication can be used to positively influence the attitude of the masses thereby restoring uthamaki. We are in have-mode;Show MoreRelatedIs Medicine A Ethical?3350 Words   |  14 Pagesreflect briefly on the nature and role of ethics in medical practice. The field of thought and action in which I seek to answer the question of what I should do in my practical life is what we refer to as â€Å"ethics†. Commonly, practical decisions are made in contexts of multiple influences and changing, often uncertain conditions. Ethics does not refer to decision making styles or one or other theory, so much as to a domain of thought and action that is marked off from those of knowledge and truth, aestheticsRead MoreInternational Business At Se Ethical, Corporate Social Responsibility And Human Labor Issues1809 Words   |  8 PagesBUSN9239 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION SEMESTER 2 2014 GROUP CONTEMPORARY ISSUE REPORT SLAVERY AT SEA – ETHICAL, CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND HUMAN LABOR ISSUES ABHISEK JOSHI () MAJED ALANAZI () NORFADZLIANA KHAIRUL FAHMY () POONAM KAUR RANJIT SINGH (2099656) YASHWANTH DEVARAJULU () INTRODUCTION Slave is a person who is the legal property of another and is forced to obey them; works very hard without proper remuneration or appreciation, or; is excessivelyRead MoreDeviance Is A Social Event By Practice And Creation1912 Words   |  8 PagesDeviance is a social event by practice and creation. Society determines what behaviors are deviant and what behaviors are in the norm. When a person or group operates outside of what behaviors are considered acceptable in society they are labeled as deviant. Cult groups are a prime example of people that exist in the fissures of society. Where most people see obscene acts and beliefs in cult life, a select few may see truth or even prophecy. In many cases this amounts to nothing, but in someRead MorePolitical Symbolism : Politics And Culture Section3061 Words   |  13 PagesLuca Bonvini â€Å"Political Symbolism† Politics and Culture Section 01 October 12, 2014 Paper 1, Fall 2014 Dr. Rossi â€Æ' After reading Crafting Democracy How Novgord has Coped with Rapid Social Change and understanding of the notes and lectures during class, political symbolism has become clear to me as an efficient form of understanding culture. There are four merits of political symbolism. One of its first merits is it has far greater dynamics of understanding culture, particularly during a â€Å"crisisRead MoreRichard Wright s Native Son2272 Words   |  10 Pagesage (20) at the end of this period, which was also the hottest point of the Harlem Renaissance. One of these many revolutionary developments during this time was the branch of sociology called critical theory which combines history, sociology, and a need for change as established by Max Horkheimer. Native Son was a direct product of these times and is, therefore, characterized with the popular thoughts of the era. The author makes Native Son a critical theory piece and by viewing the novel as suchRead MoreSustainability For Sustainability : A Variety Of Academic Fields And Disciplines2886 Words   |  12 Pagesdisciplines. What seems to characterize many of these definitions of sustainability is the recognition that the future is important to consider. (Holmbe rg,1992). Perhaps the most common and well-used definition comes from the Brundtland Commission, which defines sustainability as â€Å"development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs†. URL1 Increasingly, urban scholars, planners, developers, investors are expected to addressRead MoreShelving Personal Law or Securing Justice2732 Words   |  11 Pageshaving this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform our social system, which is so full of inequities, discriminations and other things, which conflict with our fundamental rights. — Dr. B.R. Ambedkar On the midnight of 14 August 1947, when the world was sleeping India awoke to life and freedom. Awaking from the slumber of foreign yoke the nation resolved to break away from all the shackles which had brought insurmountable pain and misfortune on its children. Purging itselfRead MoreThe Feminist And Reality Theory : Like Water For Chocolate4125 Words   |  17 Pagessuppression of the female voice and its inevitable explosion of expression (Uychoco, 2012). The goal of this application paper is to provide an analysis of Tita de la Garza role in the novel and movie through the application of the Feminist and Reality Theory. Like Water for Chocolate Application Paper Like Water for Chocolate can be broken into the stories of two women, Tita De La Garza and her mother, Mama Elena. The trajectory of their struggle against one another sets the tone in both the movie andRead More Struggle Between Hindu and Secular Nationalisms in India Essay examples4524 Words   |  19 Pagesdiversity within a large federal republic, making their experience important for Americans concerned with these issues. India faces growing action of governing which invites the use of violence to achieve political objectives. In spite of Indias size and importance, it is hard for an American to gain an understanding of the issues and conflicts which have set the stage for the most recent revival of Hindu nationalism. The central feature of this new reform in Indian federal politics is the clash betweenRead MoreTerrorism and International Relations Essay2047 Words   |  9 Pages The immediacy and the primacy of any truly potent force is the ability to perpetuate itself. Sharp and energetic outbursts have their place, and can be known to have great effect-cataclysmic forces, despite their maximum destructive potential, are temporary in their total effects in relation to some absolute goal. In other words, they are generally limited in scope, and well defined in purpose; there is a tactical objective, which is usually consummated quickly. The more dreaded force creeps along

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Charter Of Rights And Freedoms - 1596 Words

Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau was establishing the renowned Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Since the three decades of being established, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms has protected the individual rights and freedoms of thousands of Canadians. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms has become a part of the national identity and has become a big patriotic symbol for the country. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the document the truly separates Canada from all the other powerful nations and is really something that Canadian take a pride in. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms brings up many questions, but the biggest and most common question is how effectively does Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms protect your individual rights? To exactly know how effectively it protects your rights you can look at situations where it has protected and has not protected the rights of Canadians. Within the Middle East, the largest population of the men and women are Muslim. The Muslim religion suggests that women wear a veil or hijab, which is a headscarf that only exposes a woman’s eyes, accompanied by a burqa, which is a full body cloak. The sole purpose of the clothing is to cover a woman’s feminine features from men’s eyes. The Quran, an Islamic scripture, supports and slightly obligates the uniform by saying that women are to be conservative, â€Å"let them wear their head covering over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments† (Quran). It could be inferred that womenShow MoreRelatedCharter Of Rights And Freedoms1345 Words   |  6 Pages Charter of Rights and Freedoms The Canadian constitution is the foundation that forms and brings together our nation government and its legal system. You can also consider the constitution as a rulebook. It contains rules and regulations that political parties must follow in order to adopt, amend, or revoke a law. The constitution has three main sources. In 1867 the British North American Act passed, which was the first source of the constitution. A change was made to the BNA act and was patriatedRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms1627 Words   |  7 PagesThe Charter of Rights and Freedoms entrenched under the CA 1982 act in the Canadian constitution is seen as a decisive indicator of national identity by the majority of Canadians. The charter’s role in Canadian society ranges from providing individuals with intrinsic human rights such as freedom of expression, freedom of belief and acts particularly as a concrete limit on ‘tyranny of the majority’, advocating and enforcing basic righ ts of individuals and minorities. It is however worthy to note thatRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms1205 Words   |  5 PagesThe Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution and it was added to the Constitution in 1982. The Constitution has many laws about the essential guidelines one must follow in our country. It also governs how the government/ organizations should treat their citizens. The Charter allows the citizens and newcomers to feel like they are appreciated and also safe. However, there are situations where the Charter cannot protect you. The Charter can be stretched and can be looked at from differentRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms1181 Words   |  5 PagesThe Charter of Rights and Freedoms has significantly enhanced the power of the judiciary in Canada. Within the Supreme Court of Canada judges have been given the judiciary power and this amount of power is not excessive. Again, in the Supreme Court of Canada judges are federally a ppointed. Most of these appointments are made by the minister of Justice after Cabinet consultation and approval. In some other cases, appointments are made by the Prime Minister. Judges are public officers chosen to ruleRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms1139 Words   |  5 PagesThe Charter of Rights and Freedoms was constructed to replace the Bill of Rights, 1960. In the 1960’s-1970’s Quebec was extremely discontent with being apart of Canada due to the language barer and being a minority. Many citizens in Quebec even wanted to separate themselves from Canada and form their own nation. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau decided that the new charter in order to ensure the rights of people residing in Quebec. In order to do this Trudeau had to create an amending formula for theRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms1934 Words   |  8 PagesThe Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of Canada’s written constitution called the Constitution Act in 1982 it was the second main aspect of the Act and it guaranteed fundamental, democratic, legal, egalitarian, and linguistic rights and freedoms against government intrusion, it imposed f ormal new limitations on the governments in interaction with its citizens. The charter has made society more equitable for visible minorities through its use of its Fundamental Rights and Freedoms and SectionRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms2537 Words   |  11 PagesThis essay will argue the reasons behind the notwithstanding clause remaining within the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In this paper, I will provide reasons as to why the clause should be kept within the Charter beginning with the arguments that it is an essential element in critical policy decisions being made by politicians and it s hard to remove which requires the amending formula to be used if changes are to be made. On the other side, its use in policy can create grave and problematicRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedoms1363 Words   |  6 Pages The phenomenon of entrenching the Charter of Rights and Freedoms is not new to Canadian citizens, but it is a notion that is perceived in se veral ways. Many view it as a feature that disregards the fundamental right to democracy, an integral part of Canada’s political system. A functioning democracy is an important factor in providing citizens with the utmost rights and freedoms deserved. Society’s full potential is not being achieved if there are individuals who believe their principle of democracyRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedom2222 Words   |  9 Pagesthe Charter of Rights Freedoms a mistake? It is believed that the Charter s creation was a significant benefit as it guarantees certain political rights to Canadian citizens and civil rights of everyone in Canada from the policies and actions of all areas and levels of government. However, many believe the Charter makes Canada more like the United States, especially by serving corporate rights and individual rights rather than group rights and social rights. Also, there are several rights thatRead MoreThe Charter Of Rights And Freedom2268 Word s   |  10 PagesThe Charter of Rights and Freedom and its Effect on Canada Prabhjot Banipal 10 Dec 2014 Topic 4 University of the Fraser Valley The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a bill of rights granted constitutional status that was introduced in the Constitution Act of 1982 by Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau. The Constitution Act is also known as the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution. The Charter had several purposes; the first is â€Å"to outline and guarantee the political rights of Canadian

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing principles for organizations Free Essays

1. Marketing Philosophy The adoption of marketing is nearly as old as humanity itself.   Whenever there is a consumer demanding a product or service and a supplier willing to supply such good, marketing is adopted. We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing principles for organizations or any similar topic only for you Order Now    The marketing philosophy essentially entails the strategic organizational aim of determining needs and wants of selected markets and providing goods and services that satisfy such wants in a more efficient and effective way than competitors.   In the last decade several organizations started following such principle in order to endure in the market. For instance, McDonald’s Corporation applies a strong marketing orientation.   They are constantly keen on what the customer wants and change their products and services accordingly.   For example, McDonald’s adopted the philosophy of ‘QSC V’ to attract and retain clients.   It stands for quality, service, cleanliness and value.   They guarantee that clients enter a spotless clean restaurant and are served by friendly personnel.   Indeed employees are carefully thought the art of servicing clients in all regions across the world. Recently the aforementioned marketing concept has evolved to consider also the need of society.   The societal marketing philosophy, as it is commonly known, comprises that apart from determining the needs and wants of clientele in target markets and delivering goods and services that better than competitors, these goods and services are also provided in a way that sustain the society’s well-being. This is a challenging principle as one can note.   However, some meticulous organizations are already following it.   For example, when the tampered cyanide-laced capsules of Tylenol were marketed by Johnson Johnson and ended up killing a number of persons, the company immediately collected back all the defective goods, even though the corporation supposed that the pills had been altered only in a few retail shops.   Although the collection expenses amounted to $240 million, the company managed to keep customers’ confidence and loyalty on the products offered, leading such good to remain a leading pain reliever in its market. 1.1   Need for market research As one can note, to successfully adopt an effective marketing orientation, it is important that managers are fully aware of the customers needs and wants.   To further compound the issue, today’s markets are extremely dynamic and susceptible to change.   For example, car manufacturers are extremely keen on customer tastes in order to produce vehicles in line with such wants.   Therefore management is required to be constantly on the alert of what the client is demanding.   The effectiveness of marketing intelligence systems to obtain such information is weak. The need thus arose of obtaining information directly from the market through marketing research. The marketing research process consists of the following four steps:  · Defining the problem and research objectives – market management and researchers define thoroughly the problem at hand and the research objectives that can aid in solving such issue.  · Developing the research plan – the information needed is determined at this stage.   Researchers will then seek the secondary data already available and how the primary data can be obtained.  Ã‚   Primary market data can be achieved through a variety of marketing research mediums available, such as experimental research, observational research and more.  · Implementing the research plan – once the methods of collecting information are set, the collection of such information commences in this stage together with the processing and analyzing of such information gathered.  · Interpreting and Reporting the findings – the last but not least step is the interpretation of the date collected and presented jointly with valid conclusions. Marketing research is a very expensive business operation, which sometimes may amount to millions of dollars.   However, the information derived is very valuable to the organization and can aid management in good decisions to be a market leader.   A typical example that comes to mind is the Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) venture in the Japanese market. Such market seems impenetrable by many American and European organizations.   The non-tariff barriers, the iron grip of the keiretsu kigyi (banking groups), and the committed Japanese workforce make it very complex for an outside firm to infiltrate their market.   KFC, yet, was capable to enter this market and is actually performing better than the United States Market.   As a matter of fact, in the 90s the 1,470 Asian outlets sales averaged 60% more than the United States average. Through vigilant marketing research the KFC management, comprehended that in large Asian cities there is an increasing absorption of young middle-class workforce with growing income who are eager to pay further for American-style restaurants.   This exposed the viability of the project to KFC managers.   Market research also brought to KFC attention that the number of Asian women in the labour force is increasing considerably, who has a smaller amount of time for food preparation at home and consequently the need for fast-food restaurants in Asia is increasing.   With this information KFC management instantaneously recognised the strategic window of opportunity that is available and took appropriate action to operate fruitfully in that market. 1.2   Marketing Mix Elements The marketing mix concept originated from Neil. H. Borden who suggests the utilization of the four main controllable variables of management to reach the marketing orientation approach.   The marketing mix elements are the following:  · Product – there are three levels of products, which the organization should classify their products in, because customer attitude and response would be different under each category.   These are augmented, actual and core products.   In marketing, the product quality and features are not the only elements that form a good product.   Today’s fierce competition demands that managers also focus on the product design apart from the ones previously mentioned.   Nike, for example, employs 60 designers and issue 500 different footwear designs each year.   Attention should also be directed towards branding, product packaging and labeling.  Ã‚   These are important features to attain market leadership. Every product or service marketed passes through a life, commonly known as product life cycle.   These are product development stage, introduction, growth, maturity and decline.   The other marketing mix elements described below should be in line with the stage the product is in to ensure a proper market orientation.  ·   Price – the price decision is also an important one.   Management can choose from three main categories, being cost based pricing methods, market pricing methods and competition based pricing methods.   The selection of the optimal price depends on internal and external variables.   Internal factors affecting pricing decisions are:   marketing objectives, marketing-mix strategies, costs and organizational considerations.   The external factors are:   market features and demand, competitors’ costs, prices and offers and other external factors like economic conditions.  · Distribution – the distribution channels utilized should be effective in order to ensure that the product is delivered more effectively than competitors.   There are different number of distribution channels used, like direct-marketing channel in which no intermediary levels are adopted, vertical marketing system and horizontal marketing system.   Under the latter two intermediaries are used.  · Promotion – the promotion mix is a very expensive but effective marketing mix element.   It can for instance sustain a product brand.   Promotion is also important to inform clients about the product or services offered especially at the introductory stage of a product/service.   The mass-promotion tools available are advertising, sales promotion and public relations.   These should be designed and implemented carefully to maximize their effectiveness.   Likewise it is important that personal selling maintain the messages adopted in the promotion mix through the sales force behavior with clients. 1.3   Final Thought – Benefits of Marketing Even though marketing seems elaborate it is very fruitful for a firm.   By understanding the customer we can reach the clients and sell our goods.   Client retention and market leadership can also be attained with the aid of marketing.   Failure to apply marketing to understand the client can be detrimental.   .   For instance, Disney made the fatal mistake of not separating European customers with American ones in the Euro Disney project. They originally designed a park similar to the American one, incorrectly neglecting the cultural differences that exist.   For example, they adopted a policy of serving no alcohol in the park.   This was extremely unpleasant to such culture because in France wine is habitual for lunch and dinner.   Thus the organization suffered $921 million losses in the first financial year, and had to rapidly change some aspects of the park in order to survive in the European market. References: Hartley R. (2000).   Management Mistakes Successes.   Sixth Edition.   New York:   John Wiley Sons Inc. Hume S (1990).   Advertising Age.   McDonald’s Fred Turner:   making all the right moves. Kotler P.; Armstrong G.; Saunders J.; Wong V. (1999).   Principles of Marketing.   Second Edition.   London:   Prentice Hall. How to cite Marketing principles for organizations, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Advertising and Promotional Tools in Marketing

Question: Describe about the Advertising and Promotional Tools in Marketing. Answer: Introduction Chan Hinky founded Polar Puffs Cakes Ltd Company in 1926, the first Polar Caf was unique and attractive and it was located at 51 High Street. While projecting its growth in the Singapore market, the Caf weathered during the world war 11, the growth of the company was as result of the modernization of relevant industries in the country. In 1986 Polar Caf was moved to new premises at the Raffles Place, this was accompanied along with the opening of the factor at Leng Kee Road. After a decade, the company continues to grow, leading to the opening of the new outlet, this through the implementation segmentation business strategy. As the company increase in terms of economic development, and the increase in demand for the products produced the company was moved to the larger location in Woodlands. Polar Puffs Cakes Ltd Company is considered as the exceptional company in the production of cakes. According to the above introduction of the company, the company has striven toward improving their performance as well as increasing the sells volume of the products produced(Pieters, Elsen, Wedel, 2016). Marketing approaches are discussed to be the company strategic approach, which has lead the company to realize its profits and achieving it relevant goals within a specified time framework(Kemp, 2016). Marketing is defined as the process, which the company used to identify and anticipate on the customer requirements, it involves the business strategies that the company is using to distribute their products to the respective client. Public relation also is the key concept of the marketing; it comprises how the company is presenting its products and services to the customers. The public relation in marketing is embraced to be the essential practices of managing the spread of relevant information between the customers and organization(Austin Pinkleton, 2015). However, adverting is also a key element of marketing, many companies uses advertising approach gathering for more customers, they use different logos to persuade customers. Any operating company has the mandate of ensuring that it uses relevant strategies to get more customers as well as increasing the sale volume(Ahmed, 2002). Advertising is considered as the key element of marketing since it covers significant information and characteristic of the company products(Mueller, 2014). Promotion is also the component of marketing(Babin Zikmund, 2015); it involves the delivery of the company products based on customer requirement. Polar Puffs Cakes Ltd Company has elaborate on the key aspects of marketing, adverting and promotional tools of marketing are used by the company to market its products to the customer(KotleR, Burton, Armstrong, 2015). Advertising and promotional tools in marketing at Polar Puff Ltd Company Polar Puff Ltd Company is an operating company that involves in food production while implementing the essential process of accomplishing the strategic goals and objectives, the company management mandates to strategies on the substantial marketing approaches(Aaker Biel, 2013). They have the responsibility of ensuring that, the company production process of constant and that they meet the customers needs and demand(Kotler Armstrong, 2010). The company has to consider specific marketing strategies that suit their production process for specific products(Wilson, Zeithaml, Bitner, Grem, 2012). Advertising Advertising is explained to be the primary aspect of marketing, its id defined to be an audio or the visual form of marketing communication, which employs on openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote, sell product or an idea. Product advertising converses the features as well as the benefits of the product to the customer and related prospect. Polar Puff Ltd Company embraces the essence of advertising by using to launch new products, announce the changes on the existing products(Aaker Biel, 2013). Customers are the main stakeholders of the company, according to this particular case, Polar Puff Ltd Company has embraced taking into consideration the interest of the customer in relation to the products produces(Daymon Holloway, 2010). The management must focus on the consumers interest when the management considers the client interest they intend to win the customer trust and loyalty(KotleR, Burton, Armstrong, 2015). Corporate Advertising Corporate advertising is the prime aspect of advertising; it plays a crucial role in the company operation. Polar Puff ltd Company embraces the functionality of corporate advertising by using it to increase its sales volume. The company product in Woodland is reflected to be the best in the region because of the commitment as well as exceptional strategies that are used by the management(Lau, 2015). This implies the strategies entailing corporate advertising to look for suppliers who can supply and deliver quality products and raw material to the company, allowing the company to supply quality products(McAlister Srinivasan, 2016). Corporate advertising has helped the company to build confidence amongst the customers and prospects by communicating relevant information, it has also allowed the company to measure its market position against other competing companies in the market(Potter, 2012). Financial Advertising Financial advertising is an essential category of advertising. Polar Puff Ltd Company growth was determined by the financial strategies that were adopted to improve on the customer's satisfactions(Babin Zikmund, 2015). The company development and growth is based on the financial advertising approaches adopted. Advertising in the financial, as well as the business section of the newspaper and magazines, has raised awareness of the company amongst stakeholders, investors who wish to invest in the company. Moreover, publishing the company financial performance in the commercial paper allowed the company to embrace its success to the shareholder, management, suppliers, and customers(Aaker Biel, 2013). Promotional marketing tools Promotional marketing is a vital component and essential part of marketing that needs to be embraced by the organizational management while they perform their job functions. Cakes are the most loved foodstuff that most love eating, they are avoidable and having relevant nutrition content that contributes to the health of a person(Ahmed, 2002). Cakes need the company to primarily strategies and implement on essential marketing strategies that will ensure that the products produce are distributed to the market in good time, cake products are considered perishable, the company management needs to ensure that such products are distributed to the market before the specified time(Churchill Iacobucci, 2006). Polar Puff Ltd Company development and the economic growth were steered by the essential promotional tools that were implemented by the company management(Jefkins, 2016). Realizing the best technique and tools of the promotional market allows the company to increase in sale volume as well as getting long term based clients(Wilson, Zeithaml, Bitner, Grem, 2012). Contacting of local Businesses Improvement of Polar Puff Ltd Company in terms of production and sales performance is determined by the how the company contacted the local business enterprises, wholesale and retail business organizations should be considered important by the company in order to increase in their sale volume(Austin Pinkleton, 2015). Polar Puff Ltd Company produces large volume of cakes, embracing on the supply chain management and relevant channels enhance that the company is on the move towards achieving its strategic goals and objectives. The company needs to make profit by considering the relevance of wholesalers and retailers(Wilcox Reber, 2016). Retails allows the company to increase in profit making by purchasing more products from the company, retailers give the company to realize the interest of consumer based on the produced products(Jefkins, 2016). The company has extent their promotional technique by contacting the local market planners; this will allow the company sale more products. Build an Email List Polar Puff Ltd Company needs have implemented on the essential promotional tools, the company has increased its profitability making because of the development of relevant strategies that enhance marketing goals are achieve. Creating an email list is seen to contribute minimal benefits to the company but it provides a broad success to the company, the company management ensured that they have all contact list of customers; by creating email list, the company is able to promote and communicate new products to the customers(Daymon Holloway, 2010). The company marketing department has embraced in creating the email portals that will be used by the customers to access the company products. Develop a Website Many consumers get to know more about the company and its products, Polar Puff Ltd Company use website as a promotional tool, website allows the company to post new products that need to be known by the consumers(Lu, Ba, Huang, Feng, 2013). The company attained it success of improving the designs and test of cakes produce since consumer give their comment regarding the products(Percy Rosenbaum-Elliott, 2016). As the company anticipates to get positive attributes from the consumers, the company intends to improve in products designs and test as well as focusing on adding contents that contribute to healthy life. Polar Puff Ltd Company applied the use of website as their promotional tools since it is cheaper and it creates customer awareness. Public Relations Tools The public relation tools that are executed by the management specifically promote the success of Polar Puff Ltd Company, several promotional tools are tied to public relation and they play primary role in achieving the strategic goals(Pike, 2015). The company management invested in developing public relation strategies such as newsletters, press conferences, and press releases. The public relation tools that are implemented by the company executives were redirected to proactively promote existing cakes and newly launch products, as the country media industry was growing, the company also was using the opportunities to attained its goals and objectives(Potter, 2012). Public relation allowed the company to equally adapt with each stakeholder in the market, these aspects encourage the company to measure its marketing performance against the performance standards. Apparently, the success of the company was built by making decisions that are based on the public opinions. Magazines Magazines are the primary aspects of promotional tools that are used by the company while marketing their products. The olive magazine is an example of the official magazine that was developed and published by the company, the main purpose of the magazine was to provide exceptional recipe procedure that could be used while baking cakes(KotleR, Burton, Armstrong, 2015). The use of magazines by the company was seen to be fruitful since it targeted specific customers; the company used professional images and noble to persuade their customers. Newspapers Newspapers are also the primary marketing tools that are used by the organizations while performing their marketing business operation. In public relation newspaper are used to market company products with the purpose of reaching out to many customers. Company administration makes a decisive approach to ensuring that they invest in newspaper advertising, the use of newspapers in marketing allows the company to reach more client at the same time promoting ist reputation in public. The use of newspapers will allow the company to provide clear descriptions of the products as well as the geographic location of the company. Communication Communication is a complex and fundamental factor of marketing process in an organization. Communication refers to the exchange of information from one person to another. Company management plays a crucial role while implementing marketing strategies by communication the general objectives of marketing, communication in marketing also can be explained to the all the messages and the media strategies the company deploys to communicate about the marketing plan. Polar Puff Ltd Company has embraced in taking the advantage of communication in marketing. Communication in the enterprise is considered to be a pertinent factor that allowed the company to achieve its objective within a prescribed period. Communication marketing is an element of the public relation activities that includes product reposition, branding and sales presentations. Blogging Blogging is another low-cost promotional technique used by the company. According to the study, Polar Puff Ltd Company is comprehended to be posting new and relevant blogs that relate to the products produced. The company management invested on the promotional technique since it allowed the company to increase it sells volume(Babin Zikmund, 2015). Blog posting allows the company to provide testimonial, special offers as well as the cakes portfolios. Traditional marketing Polar Puff Ltd Company success is derived by flashbacking to the inception period. Traditional media describes the success of the company since it was focus toward reaching out to many customers, the traditional promotional remained to be the prominent aspect of marketing approach that was utilized by company while they accomplish the company goal and objectives. After the company was formed(Daymon Holloway, 2010)it realized the importance of using messages, presenting products through televisions, radio stations, newspapers, and magazines. Consequently, the company utilizes the use of billboards directories, aerial as well as point of purchase display, during the execution of the marketing. Non-traditional marketing Marketing operation of a company involves what the company is to offer to the customers. Non-traditional marketing strategies rely on the new unconventional marketing approaches. According to the Polar Puff Ltd Company, any marketing strategy that falls out of the traditional is considered non-tradition. The primary purpose of non-traditional marketing is to create striking marketing experiences that attract the interest of the customers through the creativity. Street Marketing Polar Puff Ltd Company placed huge cake sculptures of products on city streets; this approach was intended to persuade consumers about the products produces by the company. The intention of street marketing was to create awareness to the customers about the existing products of the company. Stealth Marketing Polar Puff Ltd Company used the stealth marketing approach as the non-traditional marketing approach. The stealth marketing refers to the construction of cake like structures around the city. The company painted young women holding cakes in both hands, the cakes represented the existing products of the company, while the woman represented customers who intends to purchase the company products. Events Events are the described to be the non-traditional marketing strategies implemented by the company. According to the study, the company uses various events to market it products, events marketing is embrace as sponsoring several activities using the company name and facilities. Recommendation and conclusion Recommendation Polar Puff Ltd Company involves the production of cakes, the company growth and development was determined by the implementation of the essential strategies. Cakes require the company management to ensure that they implement on the vital approaches that will encourage the accomplishment of goal and objectives. Yellow Pages Yellow pages is could be used as the alternative advertising approach. Polar Puff Ltd Company is encouraged to utilize the importance of yellow pages, it should allow the customer to take advantage of the directory telephone that will redirect them toward getting what they needs regarding the company production process as well as the products produced. Posters and bulletin boards Poster and bulletin can also be the best marketing model that can be used by the company while striving towards achieving it goals and objectives. Polar Puff Ltd Company is recommended to instrument on the essential strategies such as using the poster and bulletins, the use of bulletins and posters allows the customer of the company to view the new products produce, the company should use bulletin to reach out customer by explaining to the about price changes and new cake products and designs. The company is recommended to utilize the use to licensed municipalities; the company should invest in poster by ensuring that they pay the required taxes in order to be given permission to installed posters in different sections of the cities around Singapore and other regions in the market. Annual reports During the annual reporting, Polar Puff Ltd Company is required to ensure that it provides an over view of the produced product, the company management should ensure they decisively play their role by information the stakeholders about the new products, improvement of the existing products amongst other primary aspects. Conclusion In conclusion the paper has explained on the key concept and aspects of marketing. Marketing is explained to be the strategic approach that is used by the company management while they promote and communicate their products to the customer. Adverting is higlited by the paper as the primary element of marketing that is mostly by the selected company, its id defined to be an audio or the visual form of marketing communication, which employs on openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote and sell product. The models of advertising comprise the financial advertising, developing email list, developing a websites that will hold the essence of the opinion driven from different stakeholders. Promotional marketing tool is also considered to the foundation of effective marketing plan, organization that uses promotional marketing plan are comprehended to accomplish their marketing objectives within a normal and a specifies time. The Promotional tools are presented by the paper to be playing a vital role while implementing the marketing plan and related strategies. The Public Relation is explained by the paper as the fundamental element of the marketing operation, it forms the basis of the company success. It comprises the use of PR tools such as magazines, posting of blogs and using of traditional Medias; the decision that are made by the management based on the public relation represents the interest of every stakeholder in the organization. The recommendation provided by the paper should be well embrace by the management in order to achieve the strategic goal and objectives. References Aaker, D. A., Biel, A. (2013). Brand equity advertising: advertising's role in building strong brands. Psychology Press. Ahmed, P. K. (2002). Internal marketing: Tools and concepts for customer-focused management. Routledge. Austin, W. E., Pinkleton, B. E. (2015). Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communication Campaigns . Routledge. Babin, B. J., Zikmund, W. G. (2015). Essentials of marketing research. Nelson Education. Churchill, G. A., Iacobucci, D. (2006). Marketing research: methodological foundations. New York: Dryden Press. Daymon, C., Holloway. (2010). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications. Routledge. Jefkins, F. (2016). Public Relations: Made Simple. Elsevier. Kemp, G. (2016). Public relations in marketing. The practice of public relations. KotleR, P., Burton, S., Armstrong, G. (2015). Marketing. Pearson Higher Education AU. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of marketing. pearson education. Lau, H. (2015). A responsive framework for optimal advertising policy in the digital music market. In International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications, ICIEA 2015. Lu, X., Ba, S., Huang, L., Feng, Y. (2013). Promotional marketing or word-of-mouth? Evidence from online restaurant reviews. Information Systems Research, (Vol. 3). McAlister, L., Srinivasan, R. (2016). Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Effect of Firm Strategy. Journal of Marketing Research,, 53(2), 207-224. Mueller, B. (2014). International advertising. Percy, L., Rosenbaum-Elliott, R. (2016). Strategic advertising management. Oxford University Press. Pieters, R., Elsen, M., Wedel, M. (2016). Thin slice impressions: How advertising evaluation depends on exposure duration. Journal of Marketing Research. Pike, S. (2015). Destination marketing. Routledge. Potter, N. (2012). The library marketing toolkit. Facet Publishing. Wilcox, D. L., Reber, B. H. (2016). Public relations writing and media techniques. Pearson. Wilson, A., Zeithaml, A. V., Bitner, M. J., Grem. (2012). Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. McGraw Hill.